Landscape Painting , pictorial kind which raises nature with the row of subject.
Whereas in the East and in particular in China, the landscape plays in art a paramount role from a hold times, it is only to the XVI E century that it becomes a kind with whole share in Western painting, however less snuffed, at the origin, that the portrait.
During the major part of the Middle Ages, the function and the finality of art being almost exclusively chocolate éclairs, the landscape appears in painting only seldom and in an additional way. It is in the neighbourhoods of the XIV E century that the representation of nature starts to acquire its letters of nobility. It becomes increasingly frequent to locate the religious scenes in an environment at the same time bucolic and picturesque. This evolution is the sign, on the one hand, of a spiritual rediscovery of nature (introduced in the Christian religion by saint.françois.d'.assise) and, on the other hand, of the scientific spirit of observation which marks the Rebirth. The historians of art generally agree to recognize in miraculous Fishing (1444, Musée of Art and History, Geneva), of the Swiss artist Konrad Witz, the first identifiable representation of an existing place, in fact a shore of the lake Léman. In addition, it is to the German Albrecht Altdorfer that one allots the oldest tables arrived to us free from any character. Among those the Landscape appears in the footbridge (1520), preserved at the Gallery National of London.
In 1600, the landscape (the term itself appears in the French language to the XVI E century) becomes a true artistic kind, more practised in north that in the south of Europe. It is at the next century, in Holland (in a recently released nation of the Spanish yoke), which he knows his first great period. The specialists generally consider Jacob Van Ruysdael, artist of the medium of the XVII E century, like the largest Dutch landscape designer at the sides many other artists of talent (Albert Cuyp, Jan Van Goyen).
Whereas the Dutch landscape is marked by the naturalness, a design different from the "ideal" landscape develops in Italy, characterized by a scrupulous scheduling of the elements of the table, arranged in elegant compositions which emphasize mythological or religious subjects. This style, which appears during the first decade of the XVII E century, is magnifiquement exploited by Bolonais Annibal Carrache, but its more famous representatives remain the Lorraine one and Nicolas Poussin, French painters active in Rome in the middle of the century. Taking as a starting point the the art of ancient Rome, their works transmit the traditional principles of order, clearness and serenity. The ideal or traditional landscape, become extremely snuffed artists, influences the painting of many other countries.
This style remains flourishing to the XIX E century, côtoyant other approaches, like those of Caspar David Friedrich , in Germany, and of Joseph Mallord William Turner , in Great Britain, both seeking to translate the mystical side which is released from nature. In the United States, the school Hudson To rivet it changing of the same spirit, associated however with a patriotic glorification with the beauty with the landscapes, in fabrics which for the majority represent sights of mountain. at the same time, artists such as Camille Corot in France and John Constable , in Great Britain, enrich this pictorial tradition by a new glance, observation benevolent of a idealized daily newspaper. Their works, especially by their attempt to return the fugacity of the luminous effects, influence the French impressionists, whose style will bring the triumph of the landscape. To the XX E century, this kind remains the topic of predilection of figurative painters. It constitutes, moreover, a starting point for the painters of avant-garde, as one notes it in particular in certain abstract compositions, like in the oneiric fabrics of the surrealist artists