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Manierism Art

Manierism (Art) Historiographic category indicating certain artistic productions carried out between 1520 and end of the XVI century.

The mannerism indicates an art which sought to define its autonomy, to be detached from reality first by highlighting the Idea of the artist, to transpose in the matter the artistic concept.
It is an art dedicated to the knowledge of the subject rather than that of the object. Its route is in permanent oscillation between the two antagonistic ideals of the classic art: Raphaël and Michel-Angel .

The Mannerism developed during one time morally tested by a deep religious crisis of conscience. The quarrels of the reform of the church required the reaffirmation of the formal obviousness of the dogma and its bases rational and historical. Thus, the ancient repertory, considered with the Rebirth historically founder of the artistic phenomenon, becomes a source of formal and abstracted models used with an aim of fixing a rule but also of derogating from it.

The mannerism appeared initially in the florentins mediums about 1520. Andrea del Sarto moved the narrative function of work and sought to define a concept of either ideal but suggestive and evolutionary beauty. Pontormo, the most famous figure of the mannerism Tuscan, worked out an ideal value of art in oneself and not of art as a reflection of an external element like nature. Rosso Fiorentino, which came to France in the years 1530 to collaborate in the decoration of the castle of Fontainebleau, tried in its first works to recompose space according to new geometrical and volumetric criteria.
Jules Romain, a pupil of Raphaël which passed most of its career to Mantoue to the service of Gonzague, based its research on the negation of the technical categories of the various media which, according to him, choked creation.

One period of stabilization and diffusion followed. Agnolo Bronzino, collaborator of Pontormo, official portraitist of the court of Médicis, highlighted the social range of its models. But it is Giorgio Vasari which made it possible to crystallize all the artistic concerns of this time. He was a painter of the large duke of Tuscany, first historian of art, head of the most significant Italian workshop of painting of the middle of the century, founder of the first Academy of the fine arts (called Accademia del Disegno).

Art resulting from the mannerism was also diffused out of Italy. In France, the school of Fontainebleau is associated during its first time the figures of Primatice and Nicolò dell' Abate.
One then saw the emergence of artists like François Clouet, but the majority of works Frenchwomen of this time remain anonymous. In Spain and in Flandres, it is under Philippe II that this painting took a significant place thanks in particular to the artists Vicente Macip or Shine of Morals.
Towards the end of the century, Italian artists continued the company of diffusion through the building site of Escurial. It is of Luca Cambiaso but especially about Federico Zuccari and Pellegrino Tibaldi. The United Provinces (left septentrional the Netherlands) knew the exceptional painting of Lucas de Leyde. In Bohemia, the court of Prague around Rodolphe II allowed the artists like Bartholomeus Spranger or Roelandt Savery to develop a significant center of production.


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